Titrating CD47 by mismatch CRISPR-interference reveals incomplete repression can eliminate IgG-opsonized tumors but limits induction of antitumor IgG

Phagocytic elimination of solid tumors by innate immune cells seems attractive for immunotherapy, particularly because of the possibilities for acquired immunity. However, the approach remains challenging, with blockade of the macrophage checkpoint CD47 working in immunodeficient mice and against highly immunogenic tumors but not in the clinic where tumors are poorly immunogenic. Even when mouse … Read more

Genetic heterogeneity in p53-null leukemia increases transiently with spindle assembly checkpoint inhibition and is not rescued by p53

Chromosome gains or losses often lead to copy number variations (CNV) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Both quantities are low in hematologic “liquid” cancers versus solid tumors in data of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) that also shows the fraction of a genome affected by LOH is ~ one-half of that with CNV. Suspension cultures of p53-null … Read more

Cooperative phagocytosis of solid tumours by macrophages triggers durable anti-tumour responses

In solid tumours, the abundance of macrophages is typically associated with a poor prognosis. However, macrophage clusters in tumour-cell nests have been associated with survival in some tumour types. Here, by using tumour organoids comprising macrophages and cancer cells opsonized via a monoclonal antibody, we show that highly ordered clusters of macrophages cooperatively phagocytose cancer … Read more

Matrix Elasticity Directs Stem Cell Lineage Specification

Microenvironments appear important in stem cell lineage specification but can be difficult to adequately characterize or control with soft tissues. Naive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are shown here to specify lineage and commit to phenotypes with extreme sensitivity to tissue-level elasticity. Soft matrices that mimic brain are neurogenic, stiffer matrices that mimic muscle are myogenic, … Read more